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  / 2016 /
03/12/2016

Skin Structure

Skin Structure

Hydrolypidic layer
The skin's glands constantly produce ingredients that mix on the surface of the skin to form a natural protective layer called hydrolipid (hydro-water, lipid-fats).
The hydrolipidous layer, similar to the horn, has an acidic pH of 5.5 and is part of the acidic protection of the skin, which prevents it from dehydration, damage and disease.
The natural skin enzymes that form the hydrolipidic layer are active and work only at a slightly acidic pH of the medium with an average of 5.5.
At higher pH values, these enzymes are inactivated, stopped working, and destroyed by other enzymes that are active at higher pH values ​​of 5.5, creating a prerequisite for drying and lasting damage to the skin. Therefore, it is important to use cosmetics with pH = 5.5 rather than neutral or alkaline pH10 (pH≥7).
Only the use of cosmetics with pH 5.5 provides an optimal environment for recovery and formation of the natural protective hydrolipid skin layer.
 
Haircut
 
All people have 85,000 to 150,000 hairs. People with blonde hair have the most hair, and those with the least red. Each individual hair is about 0.08 mm thick and grows about 0.1-0.3 mm per day. This makes a total of 30 m of hair and 6 cm2 of hairs. Hair is 90% keratin. It grows up from the root that is found in the hair follicle.
For a period of between 2 and 6 weeks, the root constantly produces new material, forming a total of 80 cm of hair. Then there is a rest period of 2 weeks before the root begins to produce a new hair that pushes its forearm to the skin surface until it falls. Stratum corneum The stratum corneum is located in the epidermis and is about 0.02 mm thick. It is formed from dead skin cells (corneocytes) and fat (epidermal lipids) between them. Fat is only 0.02 mm. It protects against water loss (dehydration) and irritants, allergens and pathogens that cause diseases. The bedrock is not neutral pH but slightly acidic at pH 5.5. This acidic layer is indispensable as a protective barrier. Therefore, it is important to use cosmetics with pH = 5.5 rather than neutral (pH = 7). By using cosmetics at pH 5.5, the skin's natural protective function is strengthened.
The natural moisturizing factors (EOF) in the corneum layer retain the water and provide additional skin protection from dehydration.
 
Derma (dermis)
 
Derma is the middle layer of the skin. It is about 1 mm thick. Contains elastic connective tissue fibers, blood vessels, nerve endings, and nerve fibers. Hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands are part of the epidermis, but their base is in the dermis. The elasticity of the dermis is due to solid collagen and stretchable elastin fibers, and located between the fibers rich in moisture based on glucosaminoglycans. All three components are formed by the connective tissue cells (fibroblasts). Changes in appearance that occur during aging (wrinkles, tired, relaxed skin) are the result of tearing and sticking of the fibers, and the loss of their ability to absorb moisture.
 
Sweat glands
 
Sweat glands form a secretion containing up to 98% of water, along with metabolic products and salts that cool the skin surface by evaporation and are therefore an important part of body thermoregulation. The fresh sweat has a natural odor. But after the skin bacteria break down sweat, it produces an unpleasant body odor. The secretions formed by the apocrine sweat glands, which are present in some parts of the body, also contribute to the body's odor. The separated fluid through the skin is slightly acidic and forms part of the protective layer of the skin. Oily glands
 
Oily glands secrete fatty substance (sebum) that protects and smoothes the surface of the skin and hair. Their activity is controlled by hormones (androgens). Sebum has a slightly acidic pH reaction and also forms part of the protective layer of the skin.
 
Fat (up to 10 cm thick)
 
Fatty tissue - the basic component of the hypoderm is up to 10 cm thick. It plays the role of a store where unused nutrients are stored. After intake of nutrients, if they are not used for energy from the body, they become lipids that are stored in the fat tissue until they need them, turning them into energy. Oily tissue also heat the body. Whole skin: area from 1.5-2 m20.1 to max. 1 cm thick weight 10-20 kg
A square centimeter of skin: about 6 million cells around 5,000 nerve endings about 400 cm nerve fibers about 200 receptors for pain around 100 cm blood vessels about 100 sweat glands around 15 fatty glands 12 cold receptors5 hairs2 heat receptors.
 
Skin function
 
Protective
 
The skin covers the whole body and protects it from microorganisms, protects it from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays, from water loss (dehydration), cold, heat, radiation, pollutants, pests, allergens, viruses, bacteria, fungal infections, etc. The rudimentary acidic medium (pH 5.5) is an obstacle to the penetration and development of microorganisms in the skin and the body at large. If this layer is removed, the loss of water may increase 10-20 times.
 
Sentimental
 
In the skin are located the receptors perception of external irritations: for warm and cold, touch, shape, texture and pain.
 
Signal
 
The skin reflects the inner condition - blushing, blurring, bruising, etc. Determination function It is mainly related to sweat glands - by sweating water and end products of the metabolism.
 
Thermoregulatory function
 
This skin function is mainly due to the evaporation of the separated sweat
 
Indications
 
Neurodermitis (atopic eczema, endogenous eczema, atopic dermatitis):
 
This is a chronic skin disease, in which the skin reacts with over-sensitivity to external or internal factors. Neurodermitis, hay fever and allergic asthma make the atopic circle. Neurodermatitis often begins in early childhood - after 6 months of age, and can recur throughout life or completely disappear with puberty. Typically, 10-15% of all adolescents are affected by neurodermatitis, and this trend has been increasing in recent years. The main symptoms of neurodermatitis are dry skin and itching, increased tendency to inflammation based on altered state of resistance, increased permeability of various stimuli and decreased ability to fight skin infections. Stress and sweat intensify these symptoms. Neurodermitis is not cured, but its symptoms are successful. Therapy includes permanent and appropriate skin care that is specifically targeted to support skin needs - such as the Sebamed series for dry skin. Psoriasis:
 
This is a chronic skin disease, which in more severe cases can affect the joints and internal organs. Psoriasis occurs in seizures. Between the seizures the skin can regain its normal appearance. Attacks can be caused by climatic factors, strokes, stress, infections, various pests, drugs, alcohol, etc. Between 1% and 2% of the Bulgarian population suffers from psoriasis. Occasionally, the disease occurs more easily, showing white and dry scalp scaling. Another time, due to disturbance in skin cell maturation, red plaques appear to quickly cover dead corneal cells like silver dandruff. If the dandruff is removed, very thin skin is seen. Its cracking leads to punctual bleeding - the typical sign of psoriasis. The illness can affect fingers and nails. Normally, psoriasis does not serbia, except the scalp. Practically it can not be cured, but its symptoms can be successfully affected. Permanent skin care can help slow down and delay relapses. During an attack, proper skin care helps with basic treatment. Since the psoriasis skin is usually dry, all dry skin products are extremely suitable.
 
Acne:
 
Disease of sebaceous glands affecting about 80% of the growing Bulgarian population. Acne is often characterized by an inherited conditionality. Men are more affected than women. Acne can also appear at later age - 20, 30 and even 40 years old. Male hormones increase fatty secretion of sebaceous glands. The skin cells in the follicles are mature and mature. The adherent fat and horn cells clog the pores of the pores. In this way, comedone is formed. When bacteria are multiplied in clogged pores, inflammation occurs and pimples and blackheads are formed. Acne has different appearances. There is a difference between acne comedic and acne papulo-pustulosis. Serious forms of acne, such as acne congestion, acne inversion or acne fulminanse are rare. Acne cosmetics is caused by the use of greasy cosmetic products. Common acne that occurs during puberty disappears spontaneously after 20 years of age. For the treatment of more severe forms of acne, there are many medicines available on the market. Lighter forms of acne can be treated with proper skin care. Gentle cleaning and care are required.For problematic, acne skin you should use products without fat and soap, and at pH 5.5.
Medicines and skin care products need a few weeks to restore skin health and thus reduce acne. For faster treatment, a gel, cream or other anti-buds can be applied directly to the lesions.
 
Diabetes:
 
Diabetes is a pancreatic disease that produces less or does not produce insulin at all. Reduced insulin production leads to increased blood sugar. Due to its influence on metabolism, both types of diabetes (I and II) damage the skin function. Especially in type II diabetes, severe damage to the skin of the hands and feet can be detected. The skin is dry and itchy and there is an increased risk of fungal infections of the skin of the feet. Genuine skin care can protect dry and itchy skin. The Sebamed Series for dry skin with pH 5.5 not only promotes the protective acid mantle of the skin but also prevents the development of fungal infections.
 
Allergies
 
Irritation and inflammation of the skin always leads to flushing, feeling tingling, itching or burning, and pustules or hurricanes are often formed. This may be due to several factors: excessive skin dryness, irritation from the sun, wind, harmful substances that are in contact with the skin or allergies, i. E. hypersensitivity to substances that are harmless, but the immune system erroneously takes them as risky and fights them with a defense reaction. Without further investigation, it is not possible to tell what caused the skin reaction on a case-by-case basis.
In general, it is possible to reduce the risk of skin reaction by gentle care: without washing or bathing more than twice a day and without frequent or long bathtubs, not to use too much hot water or a lot of preparation along with regular care according to individual skin type. Irritated or inflamed skin should first be washed with water only and not creamy. If the reaction decreases after a day or two, then the reaction is most likely to have been caused by cleaning or cosmetic products. But only a dermatologist can determine through an allergy test whether it is an irritation or an allergic reaction. This allows the patient to prevent another such reaction by avoiding the allergen after it has been identified. Factors affecting the skin
 
Environment
 
Air pollution, cigarette smoke, car smoke, urban smog stress the skin, dry it, and cause its irritation. Together with other negative external and internal influences, it results in inflammation with redness, itching, burning and rashes on the skin. Permanent skin contact with environmental pollutants like nitrogen oxides, ozone, fine particles and soot leads to increased skin sensitivity and accelerates aging processes. Cigarette smoke - whether it's active or passive smoking - also speeds up the aging process of the skin. People with neurodermatitis can develop eczema when in contact with grasses, pollen, animal hair, or house dust
 
.Food
 
Skin diseases due to inadequate nutrition are relatively rare these days. This occurs mainly in the elderly or in need of special care. In these cases the skin becomes dry and wound healing is often difficult. A well balanced diet with enough vitamins and minerals helps skin health. Particularly harmful effects of pollution, climate and sunshine cause increased skin care needs. On the other hand, excess of vitamin B may worsen acne, excess vitamin A leads to skin peeling, and excess carotene to yellowish coloration. People with neurodermatitis may suffer from eczema when they eat certain foods. However, there is no common dietary recommendation for healthy skin.
 
Climate
 
A moderate, humid climate is ideal for the skin. Wind, dry air, cold, heat and sun stress the skin, dehydrate it and accelerate its aging. In addition to the outside climate, the indoor climate also plays an important role. Sensitive and dry skin suffers from air conditioning and heating, especially when the room is not ventilated and moistened frequently and well enough.
 
Aging of the skin
 
With age progressing due to normal processes leading to a change in the body's hormonal balance, the skin usually becomes drier and thinner, with its superficial stratum corneum thickening. This reduces the elasticity and makes the skin rough on the surface. Early use of anti-aging products slows the aging process. But even when the wrinkles are already visible, the condition of the skin can be greatly improved by proper care, which further smooths fine lines and slows down the process of stretching.
 
Skin Care
 
Skin care is specific and strictly individual for each individual skin type. To care properly and carefully for your skin, first make sure you choose products specifically tailored to your skin type. Dry skin does not have the same needs as oily. Pay special attention to delicate areas. Some face parts (eye contour, lips, etc.) have a particularly fine and fragile skin. They need special care, especially the eye contour and lips. These face areas are more sensitive and deserve special attention.
 
Delicate cleaning
Care for sensitive skin starts with cleansing and removing. In order not to stress the skin and to keep natural and balance, make sure you use a neutral pH product specifically designed for delicate skin cleansing.
 
Eyes: Risk Zone
The skin of the eye contour is ten times finer than the skin of the rest of the face. Select a specific demoulding product suitable for this area.
 
Exfoliating the skin when needed
Use a suitable exfoliating product, once or twice a week. It should be both effective and delicate for the skin. Choose one with a neutral pH that is perfect for smoothing and cleansing the skin while keeping the natural and physiological balance.
 
Hydrating is a must!
The dermis is composed of 70% water and the epidermis - of 15%. To keep the skin well hydrated, it is very important to choose a day moisturizing cream that balances the water levels inside the skin. You can use a regular and hydrating mask, removing the surplus from it with thermal water.
 
Prefer hypoallergenic makeup
To avoid the risk of allergies from products that are not suitable for your skin, choose a hypoallergenic make-up formulated to meet the needs of all skin types, even the most sensitive.
 
Protection from the sun
Regardless of the season, use a sunscreen product for a day cream. It reduces the harmful effects of the sun, such as premature aging.
 
Take care of external stress
pollution, smoke, stress ... All this damages the skin. Use products to protect your skin from daily stress before going out and clean your skin well after getting home. Do not forget the lips
As soon as you feel the need, use a restorative balm for your lips. Do not be afraid to apply it again, especially on soft areas, as often as necessary.
 
 
Maria Georgieva - Artistic Director

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